Volume 8, Issue 5, October 2020, Page: 119-123
Assessment of Quality of Artemisia afra Powder Used as Antimalarial in Tanzania
Khamis Rashid Kheir, Department of Natural Products Development and Formulation, Institute of Traditional Medicine, Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
Francis Machum, Department of Natural Products Development and Formulation, Institute of Traditional Medicine, Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
Wilbrord Kalala, Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmancy, Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
Pax Masimba, Department of Biological and Pre-Clinical Studies, Institute of Traditional Medicine, Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
Ussi Makame Kombo, Zanzibar Health Research Institute, Zanzibar, Tanzania
Mayassa Salum Ally, Zanzibar Health Research Institute, Zanzibar, Tanzania
Received: Sep. 9, 2020;       Accepted: Sep. 22, 2020;       Published: Oct. 20, 2020
DOI: 10.11648/j.sjc.20200805.14      View  67      Downloads  57
Abstract
The quality of herbal medicine can be affected by environmental conditions where by the medicinal plants are grown or collected, the area where they are dried and processed, storage conditions, transport conditions and manufacturing processes at the point of production. The study aimed to determine the quality of heavy metals, aflatoxins and microbial contaminants of Artemisia afra leaves powder used as herbal medicine processed at the Institute of Traditional Medicine of the Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences (MUHAS). Artemisia afra leaves powder was obtained from The Institute of Traditional Medicine (ITM) in Tanzania where it is processed and packed as Fivisia. Microbial contaminants were analyzed by using plate count method for moulds and Shigella spp. while Most Probable Number (MPN) method used for determination of E. coli; Heavy metals were analyzed using; Inductively Couple Plasma – Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) and aflatoxin analysis was done using High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (HPLC-MS). The data were tabulated, expressed in mean±S. D and presented in graphs and compared to WHO guidelines. The quantity of molds was between 1.1× 103 – 1.2× 103 CFU/g which is below the legal limit according to WHO of maximum of 105 CFU/g, none of the samples were contaminated with E. coli or Shigellas sp. Levels of heavy metals were within the permissible limit for consumed herbal product according to WHO standard guidelines; Chromium 1.69 ± 0.08 ppm, Lead 0.22 ± 0.01, Cadmium 0.08 ± 0.01, Mercury 0.15± 0.08 and Arsenic 0.04 ± 0.02. All samples were found below the detection limit for aflatoxin B1, B2, G1 and G2. The Artemisia afra leaves powder processed and packed as Fivisia at the Institute of Traditional Medicine; Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences (MUHAS) is safe for human consumption based on the quality parameters that have been studied.
Keywords
Artemisia afra, Heavy Metals, Aflatoxin, Microbial Contaminants, Traditional Medicine
To cite this article
Khamis Rashid Kheir, Francis Machum, Wilbrord Kalala, Pax Masimba, Ussi Makame Kombo, Mayassa Salum Ally, Assessment of Quality of Artemisia afra Powder Used as Antimalarial in Tanzania, Science Journal of Chemistry. Vol. 8, No. 5, 2020, pp. 119-123. doi: 10.11648/j.sjc.20200805.14
Copyright
Copyright © 2020 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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