Volume 7, Issue 5, October 2019, Page: 98-104
Significance of Plant Growth Regulators (PGR’s) on the Growth and Yield of Wheat Crop
Muhammad Nasir, Department of Biochemistry, Government College University, Faisalabad, Pakistan
Muhammad Ameen Ahmad, Departments of Chemistry, Lahore Garrison University, Lahore, Pakistan
Shabbir Hussain, Departments of Chemistry, Lahore Garrison University, Lahore, Pakistan
Muhammad Ismaeel, Departments of Chemistry, Government College University, Lahore, Pakistan
Received: Mar. 18, 2019;       Accepted: May 16, 2019;       Published: Nov. 21, 2019
DOI: 10.11648/j.sjc.20190705.12      View  30      Downloads  14
Abstract
The current studies reveal the effect of a plant growth regulator (PGRs) on growth and yield performance of wheat crop. It was demonstrated that plant morphology, physiology, biochemistry and yield of wheat crop is highly effected/ stimulated by the use of low/ different concentration of growth regulators. Various filed experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of concentrations and formulations of three PGR salts (ortho-nitrophenolate, para-nitrophenolate and Sodium-5-Nitroguaiacolate). Various compositions of PGRs were applied as foliar application during different stages of plant growth. Control measurements were also carried out simultaneously using water only. A significant increase in plant height, stem growth, leaf development, chlorophyll contents and other biochemical contents of plant has been observed by the use of PGR. The results indicate that the PGR concentrations of 100 ppm and 150 ppm were found to give the best results. From the current study, it was suggested that dose concentration ranging from100ppm to 150ppm has momentous potential on plant growth and yield of wheat crop. Also it enhances the nutritional value of crop and reduces the economic cost of former.
Keywords
Wheat, Composition, PGRs, Economically Cost, Yield of Crop
To cite this article
Muhammad Nasir, Muhammad Ameen Ahmad, Shabbir Hussain, Muhammad Ismaeel, Significance of Plant Growth Regulators (PGR’s) on the Growth and Yield of Wheat Crop, Science Journal of Chemistry. Vol. 7, No. 5, 2019, pp. 98-104. doi: 10.11648/j.sjc.20190705.12
Copyright
Copyright © 2019 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Reference
[1]
Islam, S., et al., GROWTH AND YIELD OF WHEAT AS INFLUENCED BYGA3 CONCENTRATIONS.
[2]
Espindula, M., et al., Use of growth retardants in wheat. Planta Daninha, 2009. 27 (2): p. 379-387.
[3]
Gausman, H., et al. Effects of 1, 1 dimethyl-piperidinium chloride on cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) leaf chlorophyll, size, and structure. in Proceedings of the Plant Growth Regulator Working Group;. annual meeting. Plant Growth Regulator Working Group (USA). 1978.
[4]
Jung, J. and W. Rademacher, Plant growth regulating chemicals-cereal plant. Plant growth regolting chemical. CRC press. Inc. PP, 1983: p. 254-271.
[5]
Hollingswortn, D., The place of potatoes and other vegetables in the diet. Vegetable Productivity. Macmillan London, 1981: p. 6-13.
[6]
Mukhtar, F., Effect of some plant growth regulators on the growth and nutritional value of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (Red sorrel). International Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences, 2008. 2 (3): p. 70-75.
[7]
Nickell, L. G., Plant Growth Regulators. Chemical and Engineering News, 1978. 56 (41): p. 18-34.
[8]
Mella, R., et al., Quantification of GA3 regulated in RNA abundance in Tomato seeds using tissue printing. Encyclopaedia of Plant Physiology. p, 1997: p. 292-295.
[9]
Janick, J., et al., Plant science, an introduction to world crops. Plant science, an introduction to world crops, 1969.
[10]
Rhoades, J. D., The use of saline waters for crop production. 1992, FAO.
[11]
Tester, M. and R. Davenport, Na+ tolerance and Na+ transport in higher plants. Annals of botany, 2003. 91 (5): p. 503-527.
[12]
Lefevre, I., E. Gratia, and S. Lutts, Discrimination between the ionic and osmotic components of salt stress in relation to free polyamine level in rice (Oryza sativa). Plant Science, 2001. 161 (5): p. 943-952.
[13]
Ueda, A., et al., Photosynthetic limitations of a halophyte sea aster (Aster tripolium L) under water stress and NaCl stress. Journal of Plant Research, 2003. 116 (1): p. 63-68.
[14]
Kaur, J., O. Singh, and N. Arora, Kinetin Like Role of TDZ (Thidiazuron)-in Salinity Amelioration in Wheat (Triticum Aestivum). Journal of Research, 2002. 39 (1): p. 82-84.
[15]
Entz, M. and D. Fowler, Critical stress periods affecting productivity of no-till winter wheat in western Canada. Agronomy Journal, 1988. 80 (6): p. 987-992.
[16]
Křen, J., et al., Yield and grain quality of spring barley as affected by biomass formation at early growth stages. Plant Soil Environ, 2014. 60 (5): p. 221-227.
[17]
Emam, Y. and P. Cartwright, Effects of drying soil and CCC on root: shoot growth and water use in barley plants. Monograph-British Society for Plant Growth Regulation, 1990 (21): p. 389-392.
[18]
Maize, I. and W. I. Center, Book of abstracts: Arnel R. Hallauer international symposium on plant breeding. 2003: CIMMYT.
[19]
Morgan, P., Synthetic growth regulators: potential for development. Botanical Gazette, 1980. 141 (4): p. 337-346.
[20]
Matysik, J., et al., Molecular mechanisms of quenching of reactive oxygen species by proline under stress in plants. Current Science, 2002: p. 525-532.
[21]
Grassmann, J., S. Hippeli, and E. F. Elstner, Plant’s defence and its benefits for animals and medicine: role of phenolics and terpenoids in avoiding oxygen stress. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, 2002. 40 (6-8): p. 471-478.
[22]
Halliwell, B. and J. M. Gutteridge, Free radicals in biology and medicine. 2015: Oxford University Press, USA.
[23]
Wareing, P., Introduction—Modification of plant growth by hormones and other growth regulators. Outlook on Agriculture, 1976. 9 (2): p. 42-45.
[24]
Nickell, L., Chemical growth regulation in sugar cane. Outlook on Agriculture, 1976. 9 (2): p. 57-61.
[25]
Moore, P. Sugarcane growth response to serial applications of gibberellic acid. in Proceedings of the Plant Growth Regulator Working Group; annual meeting. Plant Growth Regulator Working Group. 1978.
[26]
Li, X., S. Li, and J. Lin, Effect of GA3 spraying on lignin and auxin contents and the correlated enzyme activities in bayberry (Myrica rubra Bieb.) during flower-bud induction. Plant Science, 2003. 164 (4): p. 549-556.
[27]
Srivalli, B. and R. Khanna-Chopra, Induction of new isoforms of superoxide dismutase and catalase enzymes in the flag leaf of wheat during monocarpic senescence. Biochemical and biophysical research communications, 2001. 288 (4): p. 1037-1042.
[28]
Stahli, D., et al., Contribution of the wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) flag leaf to grain yield in response to plant growth regulators. Plant growth regulation, 1995. 16 (3): p. 293-297.
[29]
Shakirova, F. M., et al., Changes in the hormonal status of wheat seedlings induced by salicylic acid and salinity. Plant science, 2003. 164 (3): p. 317-322.
Browse journals by subject