Volume 6, Issue 6, December 2018, Page: 115-122
Influence of Salt on the Biochemical Characteristics of Fermented, Salty and Dried Catfish (Clarias gariepinus) in Benin
Chimène Agrippine Rodogune Yelouassi, Research Laboratory in Fishery Products Treatment and Conservation, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Abomey-Calavi, Abomey-Calavi, Bénin
Pierre Dossou-Yovo, Research Laboratory in Fishery Products Treatment and Conservation, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Abomey-Calavi, Abomey-Calavi, Bénin
Nicolas Jacquet, Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, Gembloux Agro-Bio Tech-University of Liège, Gembloux, Belgium
Aurore Richel, Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, Gembloux Agro-Bio Tech-University of Liège, Gembloux, Belgium
Received: Nov. 27, 2018;       Accepted: Dec. 11, 2018;       Published: Jan. 2, 2019
DOI: 10.11648/j.sjc.20180606.13      View  600      Downloads  109
The aim of the current study is to assess the influence of salt on the chemical composition of fermented, salty and dry catfish (lanhouin) in Benin. Different flours of fish were produced and their chemical composition was evaluated based on conventional methods of analysis. From the results obtained, the Catfish is rich in dry matter (76.640 ± 0.162 to 88.050 ± 0.085%), total ash (3.660 ± 0.064 to 23.000 ± 0.020%), total protein (5.425 ± 0.194 to 64.405 ± 1.785%) and total lipids (11.495 ± 0.009 to 1 7.875 ± 0.357%). Essential amino acids are in abundance in the fermented catfish. From the quantitative point of view, it was noticed that at high concentration (salting to more than 20%) salt is the chemical composition of the catfish. This resulted in the decrease of makers in lipids, protein and amino acids on the one hand, and on the other hand, by the high concentration of markers in dry matter and total ash. Statistical analyses showed a significant difference with of protein, ash, dry matter and amino acids; where as lipids there is no significant difference at 5%. Qualitatively, the catfish contains all nutrients (proteins, amino acids, lipids, etc.).
Chemical Composition, Fermented Catfish, Proteins, Amino Acids, Salt
To cite this article
Chimène Agrippine Rodogune Yelouassi, Pierre Dossou-Yovo, Nicolas Jacquet, Aurore Richel, Influence of Salt on the Biochemical Characteristics of Fermented, Salty and Dried Catfish (Clarias gariepinus) in Benin, Science Journal of Chemistry. Vol. 6, No. 6, 2018, pp. 115-122. doi: 10.11648/j.sjc.20180606.13
Copyright © 2018 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
OCDE/FAO, 2015. Perspectives agricoles de l’OCDE et de la FAO 2015-2024, Editions OCDE, Paris. 162p. ISBN 978-92-64-23209-9 http: //dx. doi. org/10. 1787/agr_outlook-2015-fr
FAO, 2012. LA SITUATION MONDIALE DES PÊCHES ET DE L’AQUACULTURE 2012. Département des pêches et de l’aquaculture de la FAO. ISBN 978-92-5-207225-6 Rome, 2012, 261p.
RURANGWA E., VAN DEN BERG J., LALEYE P. A., VAN DUIJN A. P., ROTHUIS A., 2014. Mission Exploratoire Pêche, Pisciculture et Aquaculture au Bénin: Un quick scan du secteur pour des possibilités d’interventions. IMARES report C072/14 LEI report 14-049, 70p.
HARIONO I, YEAP S E, KOK T N AND ANG G T, 2005. Use of koji and protease in fish sauce fermentation. Marine Fisheries Research Department, 2 Perahu Road, Singapore 718915 Singapore J Pri Ind 32: 19-29 2005/06.
KOPERMSUB P., YUNCHALARD S., 2010. Identification of lactic acid bacteria associated with the production of plaa-som, a traditional fermented fish product of Thailand. International Journal of Food Microbiology 138: 200-4.
DOSSOU-YOVO P., 2002. Justification biochimique de l’amélioration des procédés traditionnels de production de lanhouin au Bénin. Thèse de Doctorat Es Sciences Techniques, soutenue à Astrakan, Russie. 129p.
KOUAKOU A. C., KOUADIO F. N. G., DADIE A. T., MONTET D., DJE M. K., 2013. Production et commercialisation de l'adjuevan, poisson fermenté de Côte d'Ivoire. Cah Agric 22: 559-6. doi: 10. 1684/agr. 2013. 0673.
NURSYAM H, WIDJANARKO SB, SUKOSO, YUNIANTA, 2013. Quality Evaluation of Clarias Catfish Fermented Sausage Manufactured by Pediococcus acidilactici 0110
THANONKAEW, A. PECHARAT, S. AND CHANTACHOTE, T., 2011. Effect of fermentation and drying on change of lipid and protein in dry fermented catfish (Pla-duk-ra) produced from farmed catfish and wild catfish. 2011. Thaksin University Journal, 12 (3): 214-224.
THANONKAEW, A. RITTHICHAK, C. AND SURIYAPOL, S., 2009. Chemical compositions and some properties of dry fermented catfish in Phatthalung. Thaksin University Journal, 12 (1): 1-12.
LOPETCHARAT K. AND PARK J. W., 2002. Characterization of fish sauce made from Pacific whiting and surimi by-products during fermentation stage. Journal of Food Science, 67, 511-516.
BRILLANTES S., 1999. Histamine in fish sauce-health and safety considerations, Infofish International, 4, 51-56.
IJONG, F. G. AND OHTA, Y. 1995. Amino acid composition of bakasang, a traditional fermented fish sauce from Indonisia. Lebensm. Wiss. U. –Technol., 28: 236-237.
HUDA N., DEIRI R. S AND AHMED R., 2010. Proximate, color and amino acid profile of Indonesians traditional smoked catfish. J. Fish. Aquat. Science, 5: 106-112.
ADEWUMI A. A., OGUNLADE I., COKER F. F., 2015. Effect of Processing on the Nutritive Value of Clarias gariepinus from Isinla Fish Pond, Ado Ekiti, Nigeria. American Journal of BioScience. Vol. 3, No. 6, 2015, pp. 262-266. doi: 10. 11648/j. ajbio. 20150306. 19.
ADEOSUN O., FLORA E. O. AND AKANDE G. R., 2015. Chemical Composition, Microbial Content and Sensory Evaluation of Smoked Farmed Catfish Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822) Raised Under Different Culture Systems in Ibadan, Nigeria. Food Science and Quality Management. www. iiste. org. ISSN 2224-6088 (Paper) ISSN 2225-0557 (Online) Vol. 46, 2015.
AREMU M. O.,. NAMO S. B, SALAU R. B., AGBO C. O. AND IBRAHIM H., 2013. Smoking Methods and Their Effects on Nutritional Value of African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus). The Open Nutraceuticals Journal, 2013, 6, 105-112.
OLAYEMI F. F., ADEDAYO M. R., BAMISHAIYE E. I., AWAGU E. F., 2011. Proximate composition of catfish (Clarias gariepinus) smoked in Nigerian stored products research institute (NSPRI): Developed kiln. Int. J. Fisheries and Aquaculture. Vol. 3 (5), pp. 95-97, Available online at http: //www. academicjournals. org/IJFA.
KUMOLU-JOHNSON C. A; ALADETOHUN N. F. AND P. E NDIMELE P. E., 2010. The effects of smoking on the nutritional qualities and shelf-life of Clarias gariepinus (Burchell 1822). African Journal of Biotechnology vol. 9 (1) pg. 073-076.
LÉVÊQUE C., PAUGY D. & G. G. TEUGELS (eds), 1990-1992. -Faune des poissons d’eaux douces et saumâtres de l’Afrique de l’Ouest. 910 p. Édit. ORSTOM.
LALÈYÈ P., CHIKOU A., PHILIPPART J-C, TEUGELS G. & VANDEWALLE P., 2004. Étude de la diversité ichtyologique du bassin du fleuve Ouémé (Afrique de l’Ouest) Cybium 2004, 28 (4): 329-339.
PAUGY D, LEVEQUE C, TEUGELS G. 2004. Poissons d’Eaux Douces et Saumâtres de l’Afrique de l’Ouest. Faune Tropicale. IRD: Paris; 815p.
EHRMAN T., 1994. Standard Method for the Determination of Total Solids in Biomass. National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO, Laboratory Analytical Procedure (LAP)-001, 1-9.
SLUITER A., HAMES B., RUIZ R., SCARLATA C., SLUITER J., TEMPLETON D., 2005. Determination of ash in biomass, National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO, (Laboratory Analytical Procedure), Technical Report NREL / TP-510-42622, 8 p.
FOLCH J., LEES M., SLOANE-STANLEY G. H. S., 1957. A simple method for the isolation and purification of total lipids from animal tissues. J. Biol. Chem., 226, 497-509.
MOORE S, SPACKMAN D. H., STEIN W. H., 1958. Chromatography of Amino Acids on Sulfonated Polystyrene Resins. An Improved System. Anal Chem. 1958; 30: 1185-1190.
DOSSOU-YOVO P., BOKOSSA I., AHOUANDJINOU H., ZOLOTOKOPOVA S. et PALAGUINA I., 2010. Performance d’un dispositif amélioré de séchage de poisson fermenté appelé lanhouin au Bénin. Int. J. Biol. Chem. Sci. 4 (6): 2272-2279, December 2010.
DOSSOU-YOVO P., NGANGUEM M., JOSSE R. & GBENOU J., 2008. Eventuel mécanisme physico-chimique du pouvoir conservateur du sel sur le pseudotolithus senegalensis Annales des sciences Agronomiques du Bénin (11) 2: 115-124, 2008 ISSN 1659-5009.
MAJUMDAR, R. K. AND BASU, S. 2010. Characterization of traditional fermented fish product Lona ilish of Northeast India. Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge. 9 (3): 453-458.
TAOREM, S. AND SAROJANLINI, CH. 2012. Effect of Temperature on Biochemical and Microbiological qualities of Ngari. Nature and Science 10 (2): 32-40.
ADELAKUN K. M., MUSTAPHA M. K., AMALI R. P., MOHAMMED N., 2017. Seasonal Variation in Nutritional Quality of Catfish (Clarias gariepinus) from Upper Jebba Basin, Nigeria. J Nutr Food Sci 7: 622. doi: 10. 4172/2155-9600. 1000622.
UDO P. J., 2012. Investigation of the Biochemical Composition of Heterobranchus longifilis, Clarias gariepinus and Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus of the Cross River, Nigeria. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition 11 (10): 865-868, 2012 ISSN 1680-5194 © Asian Network for Scientific Information, 2012.
CHUKWU O. AND SHABA I. M., 2009. Effects of Drying Methods on Proximate Compositions of Catfish (Clarias gariepinus). World Journal of Agricultural Sciences 5 (1): 114-116, 2009. ISSN 1817-3047 © IDOSI Publications, 2009.
OLUWANIYI O, DOSUMU O, AWOLOLA G, 2017. Effect of Cooking Method on the Proximate, Amino Acid, and Fatty Acid Compositions of Clarias gariepinus and Oreochromis niloticus. JOTCSA. 2017; 4 (1): 115-32. DOI: 10. 18596/jotcsa. 53143.
LOVERN, J. L. 1962. The lipids of fish and changes occurring in them during processing and storage. In Heen, H. and Kreuzer, R. (Eds). Fish in Nutrition, p. 86-111. London: Fishing News (Books) Ltd.
IBRAHIM S. M., 2010. Utilization of Gambusia (Affinis affinis) For Fish Sauce Production Turkish Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 10: 169-172 (2010) www. trjfas. org ISSN 1303-2712 DOI: 10. 4194/trjfas. 2010. 0202.
GHAZALI A. R., RAJAB N. F.,. WEN L. W, RAHMANI A. S., ABDULLAH R., RAMLI N. M., KAMARULZAMAN F., HARUN Z., AND HASIAH A. H., 2011. Evaluation of the Biochemical Profile and Biological Activity of Budu (A Local Fermented Fish Product) Extracts on HepG2 Hepatoblastoma Cells Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, 5 (12): 2606-2612, 2011 ISSN 1991-8178.
SANGJINDAVONG M., CHUAPOEHUK P. AND RAKSAKULTHAI N., 2000. Quality characteristics of fermented sour fish cake (Nham‐Pla), International Journal of Food Properties, 3: 3, 399-406, DOI: 10. 1080/10942910009524644.
DOSSOU-YOVO P., JOSSE R. G., BOKOSSA I. AND PALAGUINA I., 2011. Survey of the improvement of fish fermentation for lanhouin production in Benin. African Journal of Food Science. Vol. 5 (17) pp. 878-883, 30 December, 2011.
DOSSOU-YOVO P., ACCROMBESSI G., ABD RAZAK M. E. H. et KPOVIESSI D. S. S., 2009. Caractéristiques microbiologiques et physico-chimiques comparées de bouillon d’assaisonnement à base de lanhouin artisanal et de lanhouin amélioré produits au Bénin. Bulletin d’Informations de la Société Ouest-Africaine de Chimie (2009) N°6; 13- 23.
FALL N. G., TOUNKARA L. S., DIOP M. B., MBASSE1 A., THIAW O. T., THONART P., 2017. Chemical Characteristics and Microbial Quality of Guedj a Traditional Fermented Fish from Senegal. International Journal of Sciences. Volume 6 – June 2017 (06). DOI: 10. 18483/ijSci. 1323; Online ISSN: 2305-3925; Print ISSN: 2410-4477: p. 578.
AMANO, K. 1962. The influence of fermentation on the nutritive value of fish with special reference to fermented fish products of South-East Asia, p. 180-200. In E. Heen and R. Kruezer (ed.), Fish in nutrition. Fishing News (Books) Ltd., London.
ODEREMI M., 1990. Utilisation de la flore microbienne de “OGUI” dans le processus de conservation du poisson par voie fermentée. 50p.
GHASSEM M., FERN S. S., SAID M., ALI Z. M., IBRAHIM S. AND BABJI A. S., 2011. Kinetic characterization of Channa striatus muscle sarcoplasmic and myofibrillar protein hydrolysates, J. Food Sci. Tech., DOI: 10. 1007/s13197-011-0526-6, 2011.
HOU H., LI B. AND ZHAO X., 2011. Enzymatic hydrolysis of defatted mackerel protein with low bitter taste, J. Ocean Uni. China, vol. 10, pp. 85-92, 2011.
KHANTAPHANT S., BENJAKUL S., AND KISHIMURA H., 2011. Antioxidative and ACE inhibitory activities of protein hydrolysates from the muscle of brownstripe red snapper prepared using pyloric caeca and commercial proteases, Process Biochem., vol. 46, pp. 318-327, 2011.
SHIH, I. L., CHENB, L. G., YU T. S., CHANG, W. T. AND WANG, S. L. 2003. Microbial reclamation of fish processing wastes for the production of fish sauce. Enzyme and Microbial Technology, 33: 154-162.
SENIMAN, M. S. M., YUSOP, S. M. & BABJI, A. S., 2014. Biochemical properties and proximate composition of catfish enzymatic protein hydrolysates made using subtilisin. International Journal of Technical Research and Applications e-ISSN: 2320-8163, www. ijtra. com Volume-2, Special Issue 2 (July-Aug 2014), PP. 15-19.
ROSE E., 1921. Un mode Indochinois d’utilisation du poisson: le «nuoc-mam ». Bul. Soc. Hyg. Alim., 9, 547-557.
KLOMKLAO S., BENJAKUL S., VISESSANGUAN W., KISHIMURA H. and SIMPSON B. K., 2006. Effects of the addition of spleen of skipjack tuna (katsuwonus pelamis) on the liquefaction and characteristics of fish sauce made from sardine (Sardinella gibbosa). Food Chem., 98: 440-52.
GILDBERG A., ESPEJO-HERMES J. and MAGNO-OREJANA F., 1984. Acceleration of autolysis during fish sauce fermentation by adding acid and reducing the salt content. Sci. Food Agric., 35: 1363-9.
GILDBERG A. and THONGTHAI C., 2001. The effect of reduced salt content and addition of halophilic lactic acid bacteria on quality and composition of fish sauce made from sprat. Aquatic Food Product Technology, 10 (1): 77-88.